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Activated carbon production


Activated carbons can be obtained from various carbon containing raw materials, including wood, coal and brown coal, etc. In production of activated carbons, coal, coconut shells and wood serve most of all as raw materials.

 

1.1 Activated carbon production and usage.

First of all carbon-containing raw materials are subjected to carbonization, i.e. kilning at high temperature, inert atmosphere with no air access. However, the resultant carbonate has pure adsorption qualities, as it is of small size. That’s why the carbonate is subjected to activation to receive specific structure and to improve adsorption properties.
 
Activation 
Coal activation can be performed by water vapor treatment by special chemical reagents. Water vapor activation is performed at temp. of 800-1000 C, under thorough control, causing chemical reaction between vapor and coal. This results in the developed pores structure and in increase of internal surface of coal. Using such a process it is possible to obtain coal possessing various adsorption properties.
Activation by water vapor allows to obtain carbon with internal surface up to 1500m2/gr. Owing to such  surface area activated carbons can display brilliant adsorbents qualities. Nevertheless, only part of this surface area is good for adsorption because large molecules of adsorped substances cannot penetrate into small pores. Usage of activated carbons is very important factor in solutions of environmental problems. 
 Active carbons are porous carbon objects that in contact with gas or liquid media can make a surface area sufficient for sorption process.

Field of use of activated carbons
 
Chemistry
Refinement of organic acids
Adsorption of organic compounds from solutions
Recuperation of organic solvents
Adsorption of vapors and gases of organic substances
Refinement of mineral oils
Refinements of electrolytes, production of galvanics
Production of electrodes
Palladium catalyst support
Vinyl-chloride synthesis catalyst’s support
Vinyl-acetate synthesis catalyst’s support
Food Industry:
Refinement of liquors
Decoloration of sugar syrups
Refinement of starch-treacle solutions
Refinement of xylite and xylitane
Production of organic acids (citric acid, lactic acid, ect)
Refinement and finishing of vegetable and animal oils and fats
Pharmaceutics:
Refinement of liquors
Refinement of low alcohol drinks and carbonated drinks
Refinement of starch and treacle solutions, glucose, glucose-galactose alcohols, lactuloses
Refinement and deodorization of edible oils and fats
Production of citric, lactic, propionic etc. organic acids
Decoloration of sugar syrups and xylite
Production of caramels
Refinement of solutions at production of medical preparations.
Production of synthetic rubbers and polyvinylchloride resins.
Support for production of catalysts
Refinement of vapors and gases
Sulphur refinement and  process liquors refinement in gas recovery and processing.
Refinement of solutions, vapors, gases during oil processing
Productions of mineral oils, chemical reagents and paint and varnish products
Elimination of spills of oil and oil products.
Extraction of gold from cyanide pulps and other solutions.
Refinement of vapor condensates and boiler waters
Refinement of industrial gases and ventilation exhausts
Hemosorbent for medical industry
Production of antibiotics
Production of blood substitutes
Production of carbon tablets
Production of calcium gluconates. Sodium chloride
Production of bioactive substances
Production of Allohole tablets
Production of cerebrolysine
Production of heparin
Production of glassy products
Fuel and energy industry :
Refinement of vapor condensate
Refinement of circulating waters.
Sulphur refinement and  process liquors refinement in gas recovery and processing.
Oil and gas recovering and processing industry:
Productions of mineral oils, chemical reagents and paint and varnish products
Elimination of spills of oil and oil products.
Metal manufacture:
Ore floatation of minerals
Extraction of precious metals
Environmental protection:
Preparation of drinkable water
Accessories for additional drinkable water refinement filters.
Refinement of sewage
Refinement of vent exhausts the air of harmful gases.
 
Application of activated carbon in water treatment. 
 
AC – (activated carbon) serves to eliminate solved organic substances and improvement of taste quality of water (elimination of odors and flavors).
Carbon containing substances are activated by high-temperature (800-1000°C)steam or dewatering chemicals. Chemical activation consists in heating initial materials to 400-500°C in presence of strong chemical dewatering agent (phosphoric acid, zinc chloride etc) After that some materials are subjected to acid washing. Acid washing eliminates metals, ash and other water-soluble substances (such as silicon) that can be washed out during operation. Activated carbon –it is adsorbent The adrorbent’s qualities depend on surface area, pores’ size and structure
The adsorbed substance is the substance that should be adsorbed (removed from water). It is very important to know exactly the characteristics of adsorbed substance, as it possible to find the size and molecular structure of the substance being absorbed. There are three reasons to learn the size of molecules; growth of molecules causes drop in solubility; growth of molecules caused draw in adsorption as molecules cannot penetrate in the adsorbent’s pores; the bigger the molecules are the more time it takes for them to penetrate into pores.
As a rule activated carbon is applied in three forms.
 Powder AC (PAC), granulated AC (GAC), compressed AC (CAC).
PAC consists mainly of particles smaller than 80 mesh (mesh – is a cell, 80 mesh corresponds to diameter of 0,177 mm) and is used mainly for refinement of liquids in bakery PAC is mixed with water after adsorption of mixtures it goes through mechanical filter or is precipitated
GAC is mainly formed from big particles of coal 50 mesh (0,297 mm) and used for refinement of liquids (water and liquid products) and gases. Sometimes used GAC (for some applications) can be reactivated and used again.
Drum-like CAC grains are used for refinement of gases as catalysts and in recovery of gold Application of CAC is similar to that of GAC. CAC can also be reactivated and used again.

 
1.2 Configuration. Basic design of LU- AZ–1200-1
Annual production – 1200 tons of activated carbon ( 345 days/year, 24 hours).
The equipment is manufactured by US license using US technology
 
Mini plant consists of 3 sections
 
Product preparation section №1.
Raw materials preparation shop:
1.Converter oven  Φ1.5×20 m (1 unit)
2.Steam boiler 0,5 m3:(1 unit)
3.Internal drum for kiln, refractory materials for kiln:(1 set)
4.Raw materials spiral conveyor with stainless plate-shaped disks, Φ1100(1 set)
5.Bucket elevator(1 set)
6.Raw materials washing and disinfection machine:(1 set)
7.Stainless steel raw mixing machine (1 set)
8. Electric control panel
Section  №2.
Finished product output
1.Stainless steel drying machine (hot air drying):(1 set)
2. Hot air operated kiln:(1 kiln)
3. Grinding mill :(1 set)
4. Finished product making machine:
5.Virbation sieve:
6. Smoke removal system:
7. Electric control panel:                                   
 
Section  №3
Packing and storing                                                    
1.Quality control lab for finished products
2. Spiral conveyor Ф1100
3. Plastic bags packing machine
4. Cardboard boxes packing machine
5. Balance
6.  Tools and equipment for maintenance
7.Electric control board
 
Transfer of manufacturing technique and technical documents
All the equipment meets the requirements of State Standard of PR China
Note 1. By Customer’s order the set can be supplemented by tablet making press and tablet packing machine. 
Note 2. By Customer’s order the set can be supplemented by wood cutting machines and planers for production of chips, and by 3 raw materials feeding conveyors.
Note 3. The kiln runs on coal, by customer’s order we can supply the kiln running on gas or liquid fuel. It this case the price is calculated proceeding from the terms of the order.
The production process requires water (400 tons/day, aqueous vapor: pressure-0.4 mPA, consumption – 1.5 tons/hour),no regeneration or reuse is possible.;
Electric energy  (power:380 kW   50HZ, three phases)jcdtot
Lighting : Power -220 kW, 50 HZ, two phases: Transformer 100KVA
Electricity: Electricity is to be supplied for 24 hrs.
Annual consumption is about 600000 KWH
Raw materials : saw dust - 1400-1500 m3/month 50-52 m3/day
Thickness -:10—80 mm, Ash ≤2%  
Moisture :30%
Application of pine and fir-tree saw dust is preferable.
 
Activating part
Raw materials
 
Additive, no less than required by PR China standards.
Molecular formula
 
Standard
 
Phosphoric acid
1% - 900 kg
H3PO4
GB2091—80  
Sulfuric acid
1% - 900 kg
H2SO4
GB625—89
Hydrochloric acid
1% - 900 kg
HCL
GB622—89

1.3 Flow chart of the equipment layout 
 

Explanations concerning production process
After sieving of wood dust and their mixing with phosphoric acid the mixture should be fed to kiln for coalification and activation. After activation a semi-finished product is obtained. If semi-finished product contain an excessive amount of phosphoric acid, then, following the washing the excess will be sent to slag collector. Then the carbon is subjected to repeated washing, washed, dried and crumbled to the resultant product.
 
Production area requirement:
Factory area – about 1800 m2
1.Preparation section - 600 m2
2. Drying section - 150 m2              
3. Packing section - :150 m2
Finished product warehouse – about 400 m2
Raw materials warehouse – about 500 m2
Metal spare parts warehouse:20 m2
 
In addition, it is necessary to have near factory as follows;
1.Coal storage facilities                                              
2.Coal slug storage facilities
Quality of the products.
There 3 grades of products. Qualitative data may vary because of increasing/decreasing of activating components in the product, depending of requirements. The table below shows the quantity of additives according to Chinese standards
 
First grade
Second grade            
Third grade
Decoloration of roasted sugar %
≥110
≥100
≥90
Chloride %
≤0.05
≤0.08
≤0.1
Ash%
≤5
≤6
≤6
Moisture  %
≤10
≤10
≤10
PH
3—5
3—5
3—5
 
The  set doesn’t include water supply pipeline, isolation valves, ventilating equipment.
 
The transportation requires six 40ft. containers.
Start and adjustment operations price is 15% of the price of the purchased equipment.
Payment terms: 50% in advance, the balance is paid after checking of completeness.
Checking – 90 days after paying the advance.
 

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